Two of the most currently challenged industries — higher education and health care — are also the two industries most likely to use the nonprofit form of organization. Recent high-profile cases have demonstrated the pull and tug on officers and directors of those entities. Tasked with both the practical realities imposed by the need to make payroll and the mission-based obligation to pursue the organization’s charitable purposes, the officers and directors are forced to weigh financial discipline against the obligation to heal or to educate. This panel explores the seemingly conflicting fiduciary duties of the officers and directors of nonprofit companies, identifying those duties and the statutory protections afforded those who are faced with making real-time decisions. The discussion will also explore challenges to the actions taken, including additional hurdles to asset sales under § 363(d)(1), government agency investigations and oversight, and class action litigation.